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「日帝の土地収奪」という虚構

韓国では日本による支配下にあった時代に日帝によって土地の収奪が行われたと信じられている。

たとえば、韓国の歴史教科書には


*「入門 韓国の歴史 国定韓国中学校国史教科書」(明石書店)より

日帝の支配下でわが民族はとくに経済的な収奪によってひどい苦痛を受けるようになった。この中でもっとも大きな被害を被ったのが土地の収奪であった。


このように書かれているが、真実はどうだったのだろうか?

詳しくは、過去に”『日帝の収奪』について”というタイトルの文を書き、私のサイトに載せてあるので是非、見て欲しいと思う。

http://www.geocities.jp/nobuo_shoudoshima/syuudatsu.html


全錫淡他著、梶村秀樹他訳『朝鮮近代社会経済史』の記述によれば、日本は耕地面積のうち13万4千余町歩を国有地とし、未墾地とされた土地、90万余町歩も接収した。 当時の課税地総面積286万7千余町歩に対して考えると、耕地面積として約5%。未墾地を含めた接収分を入れると約40%の土地を収奪した計算になる。

だが、実は土地調査事業により課税地総面積は424万8千余町歩と確認された。
これは、李氏朝鮮末期の政治の混乱により正確な統計が行われていなかったことに由来する。

この計算だと未墾地を含めても26%となり、未墾地を統計に入れるのは適当でないと考えればさらに少なくなる。


*上記内容は自由主義研究会の杉本幹夫氏の記事http://www.jiyuu-shikan.org/frontline/sugimoto/kyoukasho.htmlを参考にした。

さらに私が上記の内容を書いた後に、Carter J Eckert著「日本帝国の申し子」(草思社)という本が邦訳され、日帝による土地の収奪というウソは完全に崩壊した。

以下、「日本帝国の申し子」より引用する。


(p40)…日本人の農地所有は、ピーク時でさえも総面積の25%を超えることはなかったようだ。また、、日本人による土地の買い占めは、必ずしも朝鮮人地主の土地を減らしたわけではない。日本人の手に渡った民有地の多くは、貧しい自作農や自小作農のものであり、裕福な地主の物ではなかった。さらに日本人が手に入れた土地の多くは国有地(または王室の所有地)であって民有地ではなかった。たとえば東洋拓殖会社の所有地の多くは、王室や中央政府から直接手に入れた土地と、1910年以降に朝鮮総督府を通じて手に入れた未開墾の森林や荒野である。

(p47)…この時代の地所管理、すなわち小作地管理とは小作人から最大限の搾取をおこない、できるだけ多くの小作料を取り立てることだったからである。のちに朝鮮総督府は米価の高騰を抑える政策として、灌漑や開墾に大規模な資金援助をおこない、米の増産を図ろうとするのだが、その時初めて金一族は農地改良や農事改良によって生産性を上げることに関心を示した。つまり、1920年代半ばまでは、もっぱら小作人を締め付けて最大限の小作料を搾りとることに専念していたようである。


(p106)…このように朝鮮人は1919年の時点ですでに企業投資の概念についての知識は持っていた。しかし、投資するほどの資産を持っていた人々(大部分が地主や港湾都市などの都市部に住む商人)は、卓越した投資物件であった土地にそれまでと変わりなく金をそそぎこんでいた。

中略

また、土地への投資があまり労力を必要としない仕事だったことにも注目しなければならない。進取の気性に乏しい地主であっても、ただ小作料を集めるだけで高収入が保証され、その取り立てすらも管理人にまかされるのが普通だった。小作料は収穫高の30~90%、平均50%前後という高率だった。小作人は細切れの土地を与えられ、ひどい扱いを受けていた。何らかの理由で小作料が払えない場合は、すぐに別の小作人に土地がまわされてしまう事も多かった。地税の支払いにしても法律上は地主の義務のはずだが小作人が負担することが普通になっていた。


つまり、近代化に伴う経済構造の変化により朝鮮人資本家が小作農民を収奪するようになったというのが真相である。

しかし、2月1日に朝鮮日報に以下の記事が載った。


http://www.chosun.com/national/news/200502/200502010175.html

親日派 子孫 相次ぐ 土地返還 訴訟…一部 勝訴

"日製 事情 確認されれば 所有権 認める 数 外に"


乙巳五賊の 子孫が 日製から 事情受けた 土地を 回してくれと言う 訴訟を 相次いで 出した 後 一部 訴訟を 勝訴, 土地を 尋ねて ある.

水原地方法院は 乙巳五賊 李根沢(李根沢)義 兄さん イ・グンホ(李根〓) 孫が 日製から 事情受けた 火星, 計算違い, 安城 など 土地の 所有権を 返還しなさいという 訴訟 5件を 申し立て, このなかに 1件が 1心で 勝訴したと 1仕事 明らかにした.

中略

裁判府は そうだが “原告が 河川法 など 関連 法令に 根拠して 被告に 補償を 請求する のは ビョルロンで する”と 明らかにして 基本的 所有権が 存在することを 不正では なかった.

このような 判決に 大海 法曹界は “日製の 土地調査が 収奪を 目的に たいてい のでも 我が国の 土地 所有権の 源泉が なる のは 事実”と言いながら “日製 土地調査から 持ち主で 都合されたら 彼が 売国奴でも 所有権を 認める 数 しか ない の”という 見解を 見せて ある.


「日帝が収奪して売国奴のものになった土地だから返せ」という道理も法理も無い無茶苦茶な主張が韓国マスコミでは受け入れられているらしい。

困ったものである。

( ´H`)y-~~

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